Excel allows a user to create two-way summary count by using the **COUNTIFS** function. This function allows us to count multiple columns. This step by step tutorial will assist all levels of Excel users in creating a two-way summary count.

*Figure 1. The result of the COUNTIFS function*

**Syntax of the COUNTIFS Formula**

The generic formula for the COUNTIFS function is:

**=COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, criteria_range2, criteria2, ... )**

The parameters of the COUNTIFS function are:

**criteria_range1, criteria_range2**– ranges where we want to apply our criteria**criteria1, criteria2**– a criteria in criteria ranges which we want to coun

**Setting up Our Data for the COUNTIFS Function**

*Figure 2. Data that we will use in the COUNTIFS example*

In the data table, we have 3 columns: “Subject” (column B), “Student” (column C) and “Grade” (column D). In the two-way summary table (F2:K5), we want to count grades per subjects.

**Create a two-way summary count with the COUNTIFS table**

In our example, we want to count how many different grades (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) we have for every subject (Macroeconomics, Insurance and Banking).

The formula looks like:

**=COUNTIFS($B$3:$B$20, $F3, $D$3:$D$20, G$2)**

The first criteria is the subject, while the second is the grade. The parameter** criteria_range1** is $B$3:$B$20 and the **criteria1** is in the cell F3. The parameter **criteria_range2** is $D$3:$D$20 and the **criteria2** is G2.

We must fix both criteria ranges, as they are not changing when we copy the formula across the cells. For criteria1 we must fix the column, as only the row is changing. For criteria2 we must fix the row because only the column is changing.

First, we need to drag the formula right to the other cells in the columns and then all the row down to the other rows.

To apply the COUNTIFS function, we need to follow these steps:

- Select cell G3 and click on it
- Insert the formula:
**=COUNTIFS($B$3:$B$20, $F3, $D$3:$D$20, G$2)** - Press enter
- Drag the formula right to the other cells in the row by clicking and dragging the little “+” icon at the bottom-right of the cell to the right
- Select the whole row with the formula (G3:K3). Drag the formula down to the other cells in the columns by clicking and dragging the little “+” icon at the bottom-right of the cell.

*Figure 3. Creating the two-way summary count with the COUNTIFS table*